Nonviolent struggle works more effectively if it has been thoroughly prepared in advance; this applies in both the strategic sense and also tactically. For example, did you known that 18 students, known as the Arun Tukdi (Sunrise Unit) went ahead of Gandhi’s Salt March to assist village hosts to organize places for cooking, sleeping and praying, and to help dig latrine trenches? These virtually forgotten marchers were not only crucial to the efficiency of the Salt March, they were also reserve marchers if any of the original team were arrested.

Preparation involves several aspects including some discussed elsewhere in this framework. In addition, it should include the following:

(i) research designed to more fully understand the power structures within the societies of opponent elites;

(ii) the conduct of educational programs designed to teach activists the history and theory of nonviolent struggle and to inform the wider public about the issues at stake in the conflict itself;

(iii) opportunities for people to acquire confidence in nonviolent struggle through their participation in nonviolent action;

(iv) advance contact with solidarity groups and grassroots networks both locally and internationally; and

(v) an ongoing shift to more self-reliant social structures including, for example, communication systems.

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