198 Tactics of Nonviolent Action

Gene Sharp

The Methods of Nonviolent Protest and Persuasion

Formal Statements
1. Public speeches
2. Letters of opposition or support
3. Declarations by organizations and institutions
4. Signed public statements
5. Declarations of indictment and intention
6. Group or mass petitions

Communications with a Wider Audience
7. Slogans, caricatures, and symbols
8. Banners, posters, and displayed communications

The nonviolent action group 'Real Women on Billboards' used this elaborate banner to protest the use of scantily-clad women in advertisements for Guess jeans in Melbourne, Australia, 1994.

The nonviolent action group ‘Real Women on Billboards’ used this elaborate banner to protest the use of scantily-clad women in advertisements for Guess jeans in Melbourne, Australia, 1994.

9. Leaflets, pamphlets, and books
10. Newspapers and journals
11. Records, radio, and television
12. Skywriting and earthwriting

Group Representations
13. Deputations
14. Mock awards
15. Group lobbying
16. Picketing
17. Mock elections

Symbolic Public Acts
18. Displays of flags and symbolic colors

Iraqis display peace flag in support of international Voices in the Wilderness peace walk in Baghdad on 15 February 2003. Photo: Mike Ferner

Iraqis display peace flag in support of the multinational Iraq Peace Team in Baghdad, Iraq on 15 February 2003. Photo: Mike Ferner

19. Wearing of symbols
20. Prayer and worship
21. Delivering symbolic objects
22. Protest disrobings
23. Destruction of own property
24. Symbolic lights
25. Displays of portraits

Rev Neville Watson and other members of the Iraq Peace Team display photographs of Iraqi civilians vulnerable to an invasion of Iraq at Safwan in the DMZ at the Iraq-Kuwait border. The Iraq Peace Team held a four-day fast at the border facing 90,000 American troops in Kuwait. Photo: Thorne Anderson/Corbis Sygma

Rev Neville Watson and other members of the multinational Iraq Peace Team display photographs of Iraqi civilians vulnerable to an invasion of Iraq at Safwan in the DMZ at the Iraq-Kuwait border in February 2003. The Iraq Peace Team held a four-day fast at the border facing 90,000 American troops in Kuwait. Photo: Thorne Anderson/Corbis Sygma

26. Paint as protest
27. New signs and names
28. Symbolic sounds

Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and other Native American 'protectors' use traditional music while defending their sacred ancestral land against the Dakota (bakkan oil) access pipeline, 10 Sep 2016. Photo: Robyn Beck/AFP/Getty Images

Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and other Native American ‘protectors’ use traditional music while defending their sacred ancestral land against the Dakota (bakkan oil) access pipeline, 10 Sep 2016. Photo: Robyn Beck/AFP/Getty Images

29. Symbolic reclamations
30. Rude gestures

Pressures on Individuals
31. ‘Haunting’ officials
32. Taunting officials
33. Fraternization
34. Vigils

Drama and Music
35. Humorous skits and pranks
36. Performances of plays and music
37. Singing

Processions
38. Marches

Veterans For Peace members Mike Ferner and Will Covert participate in the ANSWER protest march against the ongoing US wars on Iraq and Afghanistan, Washington DC, USA 19 March 2008.

Veterans For Peace (VFP) members Mike Ferner and Will Covert participate in the ANSWER protest march against the ongoing US wars on Iraq and Afghanistan in Washington DC, USA on 19 March 2008.

39. Parades
40. Religious processions
41. Pilgrimages
42. Motorcades

Honoring the Dead
43. Political mourning
44. Mock funerals

Angels from Nevada Desert Experience (USA) perform a mock funeral to demonstrate the gruesome 'double tap' procedure in which the U.S. military uses drone strikes to kill family members attending a funeral for a previous drone victim, 1 April 2016. Photo: Sharat/'Nuclear Resister'

Angels from Nevada Desert Experience (USA) perform a mock funeral to demonstrate the gruesome ‘double tap’ procedure in which the U.S. military uses drone strikes to kill family members attending a funeral for a previous drone victim, 1 April 2016. Photo: Sharat/’Nuclear Resister’

45. Demonstrative funerals
46. Homage at burial places

Public Assemblies
47. Assemblies of protest or support
48. Protest meetings
49. Camouflaged meetings of protest
50. Teach-ins

Withdrawal and Renunciation
51. Walk-outs
52. Silence
53. Renouncing honors
54. Turning one’s back

The Methods of Social Noncooperation

Ostracism of Persons
55. Social boycott
56. Selective social boycott
57. Lysistratic nonaction
58. Excommunication
59. Interdict

Noncooperation with Social Events, Customs and Institutions
60. Suspension of social and sports activities
61. Boycott of social affairs
62. Student strike
63. Social disobedience
64. Withdrawal from social institutions

Withdrawal from the Social System
65. Stay-at-home
66. Total personal noncooperation
67. ‘Flight’ of workers
68. Sanctuary
69. Collective disappearance
70. Protest emigration (hijrat)

The Methods of Economic Noncooperation
(1) Economic Boycotts

Action by Consumers
71. Consumers’ boycott
72. Nonconsumption of boycotted goods
73. Policy of austerity
74. Rent withholding
75. Refusal to rent
76. National consumers’ boycott
77. International consumers’ boycott

Action by Workers and Producers
78. Work[er]s’ boycott
79. Producers’ boycott

Action by Middlemen
80. Suppliers’ and handlers’ boycott

Action by Owners and Management
81. Traders’ boycott
82. Refusal to let or sell property
83. Lockout
84. Refusal of industrial assistance
85. Merchants’ ‘general strike’

Action by Holders of Financial Resources
86. Withdrawal of bank deposits
87. Refusal to pay fees, dues, and assessments
88. Refusal to pay debts or interest
89. Severance of funds and credit
90. Revenue refusal
91. Refusal of a government’s money

War tax resister Robert Burrowes pays his resisted military taxes as rent for his use of Aboriginal land to indigenous elder Robbie Thorpe at the Australian Tax Office, 19 April1989.

War tax resister Robert Burrowes pays his resisted military taxes as rent for his use of Aboriginal land to indigenous elder Robbie Thorpe at the Australian Tax Office, 19 April 1989.

Action by Governments
92. Domestic embargo
93. Blacklisting of traders
94. International sellers’ embargo
95. International buyers’ embargo
96. International trade embargo

(2) The Strike

Symbolic Strikes
97. Protest strike
98. Quickie walkout (lightning strike)

Agricultural Strikes
99. Peasant strike
100. Farm Workers’ strike

Strikes by Special Groups
101. Refusal of impressed labor
102. Prisoners’ strike
103. Craft strike
104. Professional strike

Ordinary Industrial Strikes
105. Establishment strike
106. Industry strike
107. Sympathetic strike

Restricted Strikes
108. Detailed Strike
109. Bumper strike
110. Slowdown strike
111. Working-to-rule strike
112. Reporting ‘sick’ (sick-in)
113. Strike by resignation
114. Limited strike
115. Selective strike

Multi-Industry Strikes
116. Generalized strike
117. General strike

Combination of Strikes and Economic Closures
118. Hartal
119. Economic shutdown

The Methods of Political Noncooperation

Rejection of Authority
120. Withholding or withdrawal of allegiance
121. Refusal of public support
122. Literature and speeches advocating resistance

Citizens’ Noncooperation with Government
123. Boycott of legislative bodies
124. Boycott of elections
125. Boycott of government employment and positions
126. Boycott of government departments, agencies and other bodies
127. Withdrawal from government educational institutions
128. Boycott of government-supported organizations
129. Refusal of assistance to enforcement agents
130. Removal of own signs and placemarks
131. Refusal to accept appointed officials
132. Refusal to dissolve existing institutions

Citizens’ Alternatives to Obedience
133. Reluctant and slow compliance
134. Nonobedience in absence of direct supervision
135. Popular nonobedience
136. Disguised disobedience
137. Refusal of an assemblage or meeting to disperse
138. Sit-down
139. Noncooperation with conscription and deportation
140. Hiding, escape, and false identities
141. Civil disobedience of ‘illegitimate’ laws

Action by Government Personnel
142. Selective refusal of assistance by government aides
143. Blocking of lines of command and information
144. Stalling and obstruction
145. General administrative noncooperation
146. Judicial noncooperation
147. Deliberate inefficiency and selective noncooperation by enforcement agents
148. Mutiny

Domestic Governmental Action
149. Quasi-legal evasions and delays
150. Noncooperation by constituent governmental units

International Governmental Action
151. Changes in diplomatic and other representations
152. Delay and cancellation of diplomatic events
153. Withholding of diplomatic recognition
154. Severance of diplomatic relations
155. Withdrawal from international organizations
156. Refusal of membership in international bodies
157. Expulsion from international organizations

The Methods of Nonviolent Intervention

Psychological Intervention
158. Self-exposure to the elements
159. The fast
…….a. Fast of moral pressure
…….b. Hunger strike
…….c. Satyagrahic fast
160. Reverse trial
161. Nonviolent harassment

Physical Intervention
162. Sit-in
163. Stand-in
164. Ride-in
165. Wade-in
166. Mill-in
167. Pray-in
168. Nonviolent raids
169. Nonviolent air raids
170. Nonviolent invasion
171. Nonviolent interjection
172. Nonviolent obstruction
173. Nonviolent occupation

This nonviolent activist participated in a 'die in' (a form of physical intervention) against bull-fighting in Madrid, Spain, 1 April 2016. Photo: Marcos Del Mazo

This nonviolent activist participated in a ‘die in’ (a form of physical intervention) against bull-fighting in Madrid, Spain, 1 April 2016. Photo: Marcos Del Mazo

Social Intervention
174. Establishing new social patterns
175. Overloading of facilities
176. Stall-in
177. Speak-in
178. Guerrilla theater
179. Alternative social institutions
180. Alternative communication system

Economic Intervention
181. Reverse Strike
182. Stay-in Strike
183. Nonviolent land seizure
184. Defiance of Blockades
185. Politically Motivated Counterfeiting
186. Preclusive Purchasing
187. Seizure of assets
188. Dumping
189. Selective patronage
190. Alternative markets
191. Alternative transportation systems
192. Alternative economic institutions

Political Intervention
193. Overloading of administrative systems
194. Disclosing identities of secret agents
195. Seeking imprisonment
196. Civil disobedience of ‘neutral’ laws
197. Work-on without collaboration
198. Dual sovereignty and parallel government

Reference: Gene Sharp The Politics of Nonviolent Action, Part Two: The Methods of Nonviolent Action. Boston: Porter Sargent, 1973.

Source of this document: https://nonviolentstrategy.wordpress.com/strategywheel/tactics-and-peacekeeping/198-tactics-of-nonviolent-action/

Advertisements